Cardiovascular disease and bone loss—new research in identifying common disease pathophysiologies and predictors
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including coronary heart disease, with associated outcomes such as heart attack and stroke, are the number one cause of death worldwide (1). The World Health Organization estimates that >17 million people die annually due to CVD (1). Osteoporosis, or bone disease, is another common disease resulting in almost 9 million bone fractures globally per year (2); 1 in 3 women, and 1 in 5 men over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporotic fracture in their lifetime (3,4). Fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality (5-7), and are a major health concern. As highlighted by the global statistics, both CVD and osteoporosis each contribute independently to a large disease burden worldwide.