Treatment of airway complications following lung transplantation

Amit K. Mahajan, Sandeep J. Khandhar


Airway complications following lung transplantation are associated with significant morbidity and a mortality of 2–4 percent. Transplant related airway complications often result in recurrent bronchoscopies and hospitalizations. Although bronchoscopic interventions are ideal for treatment of airway complications, some patients require surgical intervention or even re-transplantation. Common airway complications following lung transplantation include granulation tissue formation, anastomotic stenosis, transplant related bronchomalacia, bronchial fistulae, anastomotic infection, and anastomotic dehiscence. A number of management strategies have proven effective in treating structural airway complications following lung transplantation, but additional research is necessary to find ways to reduce mortality and improve quality of life.