Advances in penile reconstructive techniques for primary penile tumors
We present a review on advances in the management of primary penile tumors. Penile cancer is an uncommon disease with numerous implications for not only quantity but also quality of life. We discuss reconstructive options that are available for patients after initial removal of malignancy, with an emphasis on organ-sparing approaches. This review examines possibilities along the spectrum of this disease, dependent on the severity and extent of presenting lesions, with discussion of techniques ranging from glans resurfacing for carcinoma in situ (CIS) to flap reconstruction for tumors requiring total penectomy. We also address frontiers in the field related to tissue engineering and transplantation innovation. These options are presented to provide urologists with a better understanding of the state of the art to optimize patients’ oncologic, functional, and cosmetic outcomes.