Foreign body removal in children and adults: review of available techniques and emerging technologies
In adults, clinical manifestations of foreign body aspiration range from sudden onset of asphyxia and respiratory failure due to central airway obstruction to subacute and even chronic worsening of non-specific pulmonary complaints. Given a wide range of often non-specific clinical symptoms associated with foreign body aspiration, high index of suspicion is required to avoid delay in diagnosis. In this review article we describe risk factors, clinical presentation, evaluation and management of foreign body aspiration in adult and pediatric patient populations. We will review several bronchoscopic techniques for foreign body extraction and describe the use of a flexible cryoprobe and its novel application in pediatric populations to aid in foreign body removal. Finally we will highlight potential complications that may be encountered during foreign body removal.